Human everyday naive experience of this temporary reality has given rise
to the formulation of concepts like ‘individuality’, ‘continuity/discontinuity’,
‘constancy’, ‘change’, ‘universality’ and ‘specificity/typicalness’. These all
are concepts that play a major role not merely within philosophy, but also
within theoretical biology. Neo-Darwinism, due to its monistic character,
tries to eradicate the limits of these concepts, and in that way it tries
to reduce that which makes up the meaning of those concepts, i.e. the
ideas that lie at the foundation of them and make them possible, in a
materialistic, that is physicalistic way. The Philosophy of the Cosmonomic
Idea (abbreviated in this article to: ‘W.d.W.’), however, is in a position
to do justice to those concepts and to the abovementioned naievely
experienced ideas that lie at the bottom of them, because of its antireductionistic
approach that comes with its so-called principle of spheresovereignity,
and thanks to its anti-substantialistic, heteronomic nature.
That’s why this article contains a, if necessary extensive, but always
general introduction to the doctrine of the modalities and the ‘typology of
structures’ of this philosophical system.

I make the case that this so-called ‘transcendental approach’ of creation
by the W.d.W., that is displayed by its important distinction between
a formal side and a factual side of created reality, already a priori is
sufficient to rule out success for a materialistic, that is a physicalistic
reduction of the pluriform creation, regardless of empirical biological
data. But it is also pointed out, that the enormous developments within
biological subdisciplines, such as molecular genetics and cell biology,
that have started with the discovery of the DNA dubble helix structure in
the fifties of the twentieth century, have resulted in discoveries that by no
means embarrass the approach to plants and animals of the Philosophy
of the Cosmonomic Idea, but constitute in every respect a problem for